TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS & MECHANISMS FOR THEIR NEUTRALIZATION
Origin: NeoSan Labs brochure "CBRNE Interactive"
TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS (TIC) DEFINITION
A TIC is defined as any chemical compound, constituent, substance, species, or agent that through its chemical action on life processes can, if left untreated, cause death, temporary incapacitation, acute and chronic health effects, or permanent harm to humans or animals. This includes all such chemical agents, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, and regardless of whether they are produced in facilities, in munitions, or elsewhere.
THE MAJORITY OF TICS ARE NEUTRALIZED VIA ONE OF FOUR REACTION MECHANISMS
Chemical Oxidation is half of a redox reaction. One of the reactants is oxidized, or loses electrons, while the other reactant is reduced, or gains electrons. Oxidizing compounds are used to denature contaminants into harmless compounds. The remediation of certain organic substances such as chlorinated solvents (trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene) and other hydrocarbon compounds (benzene,
toluene, ethylbenzene, MTBE, and xylenes) by chemical oxidation is possible. The toxicity level of other
contaminants can be reduced.
Chemical Reduction is the opposite of oxidation. One of the reactants loses oxygen, usually by gaining electrons. A reduction reaction always coincides with an oxidation reaction. Oxidation and reduction
together are called redox.
Nucleophilic Attack is a reaction class in which a nucleophile electron selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or group of atoms to replace a so-called leaving group.
Buffering is the effect the formula has due to its aqueous solution consisting of a weak acid and conjugate base. The acidic and alkaline components do not undergo any reactions that significantly alter their concentration; therefore both remain present in the solution. They only rarely react with water but are very likely to react with any added strong base or strong acid. The pH only slightly changes when a small or moderate amount of strong acid or base is added. Buffer solutions are used to keeping the pH at a nearly constant level in a wide variety of chemical applications.
Dissolution exploits the principles of cationic micelle catalysis and the solubilization power of cationic hydrotropes to dissolve sparingly soluble toxicants. This principle is used for a TIC or a Chemical that is insoluble in water that may be detoxified by nucleophilic attack.
Select constituents in the formulation enable this mechanism, solubilizing sparingly soluble agents and enhancing vulnerability to a nucleophilic attack. This is accomplished through the recognition that certain nucleophilic agents are negatively charged. The insoluble chemical agent (or TIC) is dissolved within the
micelle, comprised of an aggregate of surfactant molecules with hydrophobic tails forming the interior core and hydrophilic heads concentrating at the surface of the micelle. These positively charged hydrophilic heads attract the negatively charged nucleophiles. In this sense, the cationic surfactant acts as a catalyst
to speed up the reaction between the toxicant and the reactive compound. This principle can also be applied to insoluble chemical agents which are subject to an oxidative attack by a negatively charged oxidizer and to insoluble chemical agents, subject to a reductive attack by negatively charged reductants.
Atmas is an exclusive distributor of NeoSan Labs decontamination product range that offers Military-Grade Decontamination for the following:
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS (CWA)
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AGENTS (BWA)
TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS (TIC)
NONCONVENTIONAL TOXIC AGENTS (NTA)
RADIOLOGICAL & NUCLEAR PARTICLES
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